Researchers Testing a Variety of Approaches

First Human Trials With a Novel Noninvasive, Nonoptical Continuous Glucose Monitoring System

A. Caduff and L. Heinemann
(Pendragon Medical)

Researchers at Pendragon Medical are concentrating their efforts on looking at a noninvasive and nonoptical approach to monitoring glucose levels in people with diabetes.

The term “noninvasive” refers to the fact that the researchers were able to test glucose levels without needing to puncture the skin using a lancet or other type of needle. The term “nonoptical” refers to the fact that testing did not include the use of lasers to monitor glucose levels.

Instead, researchers used what they term “radio wave impedance spectroscopy,” which uses radio waves and the changing impedance (resistance) of the skin to monitor changes in blood composition.

Use of an Amplitude-Sensitive Optical Heterodyne Polarimeter to Noninvasively Monitor Aqueous Humor Glucose

Dr. Chien Chou
(National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan)

In this research abstract, the author discussed the use of a laser to test glucose levels using both animal (New Zealand white rabbits) and human subjects.

The laser beam was targeted on the subjects’ eyes using a shutter-like device to help reduce the normal fluctuation of the eye. This approach to testing glucose levels was quite accurate over a period of 10 days of testing.

Occlusion Spectroscopy as a New Paradigm of Noninvasive Glucose Measurement

Ilya Fine, Edward Shipigelman, Boris Fikhte
(OrSense Ltd.)

Occlusion spectroscopy monitors the change in time of the optical characteristics of blood, controlling the blood flow or stopping it. This stoppage triggers changes in the blood that can be monitored and give readings of glucose levels.

Noninvasive Blood-Glucose Monitoring Using an Optical Bridge

Hanna Harjunmaa, PhD, Steven Kun, PhD, J. Paul Lock, MD, Robert A. Peura, PhD
(VivaScan Corporation)

This research abstract focused on the use of two near-infrared lights beamed through the earlobe. As a subject squeezed and released the earlobe, the infrared lights monitored the displacement and re-entry of the blood into the earlobe. This process gave the researchers clinically acceptable glucose-measurement readings.

Minimally Invasive Glucose Monitoring Using Powder Injection Technology

Sung-Yun Kwon, Terry L Burkoth
(PowderChek Diagnostics)

Researchers have used a technology called “powder injection,” in which small particles are injected into the skin using a hand-held supersonic gas jet. The fine particles are accelerated to a high velocity and forced through the skin. The resulting pathway left by the injection allows for sampling of glucose levels. The researchers say this approach is pain-free and needle-free.

Ninety-four percent of the subjects preferred this method to the finger-prick method.

Noninvasive Optical Monitoring of Blood Glucose by Novel Fiber Probe

Katsuhiko Maruo, Jhakusei Chin, Mamoru Tamura
(Matsushita Electric Works Ltd.)

By using a central optical fiber probe with surrounding optical fibers, researchers were able to test glucose changes in skin tissue without puncturing the skin.

Novel Silicon-Based Glucose Sensor for Continuous Glucose Monitoring

G. Piechotta, J. Albers, R. Hintsche
(Fraunhofer Institute for Silicon Technology)

This research abstract discussed the development of a silicon sensor that, depending on the size of the intake pores, can allow the entrance of glucose molecules into a “reaction chamber” and give a glucose-level reading.

Glucose Sensors Based on Islet-Electro-Gram (IEG)

R. Schatzberger, A. Secchi, N. Dozio, S. Tuvia, Y. Shezifi, A. Atman, Y. Palti
(Carmel BioSensors)

According to this abstract, a skin-patch-mounted microprocessor called GlucoTrack provides continuous monitoring of glucose levels in people with diabetes. Ninety-nine percent of the GlucoTrack readings were within clinically acceptable ranges.

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