Even after participating in an intensive treatment and training program, it has been found that smoking and low-level education are indicators of poor metabolic control in people who have been newly diagnosed with type I diabetes. This study was conducted by researchers from the Department of Metabolic Disease and Nutrition, Dusseldorf, Germany.
The study found that a high HbA1c (average long-term blood glucose level) is associated with the following indicators, in descending order from the most effective to the least: low-level education, young age, smoking, and duration of diabetes. For patients who have had type I diabetes for two to three years, low-level education and smoking are the strongest indicators for poor metabolic control.
The authors note that whether or not these patients can improve their metabolic control through intervention in addition to intensive education training remains to be determined.